The property consists of two separate areas: Sanganeb is an isolated, coral reef structure in the central Red Sea and the only atoll, 25 km north-east off the shoreline of Port Sudan city. The second component of the property is made up of Dungonab Bay and Mukkawar Island, situated 125 km north of Port Sudan. It includes a highly diverse system of coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass beds, beaches and islets. The site provides a habitat for populations of seabirds, marine mammals, fish, sharks, turtles and manta rays. Dungonab Bay also has a globally significant population of dugongs.
Sanganeb Marine National Park is one of the most unique reef structures in the Sudanese Red Sea whose steep slopes rise from a sea floor more than 800 m deep. The Atoll is characterized by steep slopes on all sides. The dominated coral reef ecosystem harbors significant populations of fauna and flora in a stable equilibrium with numerous endemic and endangered species. The reefs are distinctive of their high number of species, diverse number of habitats, and high endemism. The atoll has a diverse coral fauna with a total of 86 coral species being recorded. The total number of species of algae, polychaetes, fish, and Cnidaria has been confirmed as occurring at Sanganeb Atoll.
Dungonab Bay is engulfing Mukkawar Island, which is 30km offshore Dungonab Peninsula. The area was declared a Marine Protected Area in 2004; it contains extensive and diverse seagrass beds, a regionally important population of dugong, regionally or globally important nesting areas for marine turtles and seabirds, and seasonal aggregations of whale sharks and manta rays that are unique in the entire western Indian Ocean region. The area is known to be of particular significance for birds and is designated as an Important Bird Area. The eastern shore of Mukawwar Island is a turtle nesting site of regional and possibly international significance. The Dugongs population occurring in Dungonab Bay/Mukawwar Island may be the most important remaining on the coast of Africa.