Located in the Yangtze River Basin on the south-eastern coast of the country, the archaeological ruins of Liangzhu (about 3,300-2,300 BCE) reveal an early regional state with a unified belief system based on rice cultivation in Late Neolithic China. The property is composed of four areas – the Area of Yaoshan Site, the Area of High-dam at the Mouth of the Valley, the Area of Low-dam on the Plain and the Area of City Site. These ruins are an outstanding example of early urban civilization expressed in earthen monuments, urban planning, a water conservation system and a social hierarchy expressed in differentiated burials in cemeteries within the property.
The Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City was the centre of power and belief of an early regional state in the Circum-Taihu Lake Area. It is located on a plain criss-crossed by river networks in the eastern foothills of the Tianmu Mountains in the Yangtze River Basin on the southeast coast of China.
The property is composed of four areas: Area of Yaoshan Site; Area of High-dam at the Mouth of the Valley; Area of Low-dam on the Plain – Causeway in Front of the Mountains; and Area of City Site.
The Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City reveals an early regional state with rice-cultivating agriculture as its economic base, and social differentiation and a unified belief system, which existed in the Late Neolithic period in China. With a series of sites, including the City Site built during ca. 3300-2300 BCE, the Peripheral Water Conservancy System with complex functions and socially-graded cemeteries (including an altar), and the excavated objects represented by series of jade artefacts symbolizing the belief system, as well as its early age, the property represents the remarkable contributions made by the Yangtze River Basin to the origins of Chinese civilization. In addition, the pattern and functional zoning of the capital, together with the characteristics of the settlements of the Liangzhu culture and of the Outer City with the terraces, support strongly the value of the property.
Criterion (iii): The Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu City, as the centre of power and belief of Liangzhu culture, is an outstanding testimony of an early regional state with rice-cultivating agriculture as its economic base, and social differentiation and a unified belief system, which existed in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River in the Late Neolithic period of China. It provides unparalleled evidence for concepts of cultural identity, social and political organization, and the development of society and culture in the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age in China and the region.
Criterion (iv): The Archaeological Ruins of Liangzhu illustrates the transition from small-scale Neolithic societies to a large integrated political unit with hierarchy, rituals and crafts. It includes outstanding examples of early urbanization expressed in earthen monuments, city and landscape planning, social hierarchy expressed in burial differentiations in cemeteries within the property, socio-cultural strategies for organization of space, and materialization of power. It represents the great achievement of prehistoric rice-cultivating civilization of China over 5000 years ago, and as an outstanding example of early urban civilization.
Hangzhou (Hángzhōu in Mandarin) is in Zhejiang Province, China. It is one of the most important tourist cities in China, famous for its natural beauty and historical and cultural heritage. Hangzhou is the political, economic and cultural center of Zhejiang province. It is a prosperous and highly developed city that gets many migrants from poorer provinces coming to seek work. It’s annoyingly humid in summertime, which is from early June to early September. Famed for its natural scenery, Hangzhou and its West Lake have been immortalized by countless poets and artists. The city was the capital of the Southern Song Dynasty from 1127 until the Mongol invasion of 1276. The city’s population is estimated to have been as high as one million in those days, making it the largest city in the world at the time. Even Marco Polo claimed to have passed through, calling it beyond dispute the finest and the noblest in the world [read more].
Shaoxing is a city in Zhejiang, near Shanghai and Hangzhou, famous for its traditional Chinese bridges, boats, architectures, yellow wine and a huge number of textile and cloth factories and production. The fastest way to get there is by plane, stop in Xiaoshan International Airport (HGH IATA), then take a bus or cab to get into downtown, no more than 20 km away from the airport. The easiest way to get into Shaoxing is by bus, almost every city in Zhejiang will have transportation to Shaoxing. The downtown is very clean, and very nice to walk around to feel the perfect combination of modern and ancient Chinese culture Fishermen in this town used to use cormorants for fishing, but nowadays the town only has the birds on special occasions. Call the travel association ahead of time to ask before coming here to look for birds. See Lu Xun’s Hometown Tourism Precinct. An assortment of buildings associated with Lu Xun, a famous early 20th century Chinese writer [read more].
Shanghai (Zånhae in Shanghainese, Shànghǎi in Mandarin) is the most developed city in China, the country’s main center for finance and fashion, and one of the world’s most populous and important cities. Shanghai is split in two by the Huangpu River, which divides the city into Puxi, west of the river, and Pudong, east of the river. Both terms can be used in a general sense for everything on their side of the river, including various suburbs. However, they are more often used in a much narrower sense where Puxi is the older (since the 19th century) city center (#Downtown below) and Pudong the mass of new (since 1990) high-rise development right across the river from there. Shanghai is one of four cities in China that are administered as municipalities at the same level in the hierarchy as provinces (discussion). It is not part of any province and there is no government structure at province, prefecture or city level, just a government for Shanghai Municipality and one for each of the 16 districts within it [read more].