Peak population: 100,000
Peak population year(s): 400 B.C., 300 B.C.
Location 39.7° 66.9°, present day Uzbekistan
The famed city of Samarkand, known in ancient times as Sumargand, was an important stop on the storied Silk Road trading route. The city, now a UNESCO World Heritage site, dates back to the seventh century B.C.