There are lots of reasons why cities come into being. The first might be a purely practical one, as is the case with metropolises founded near fertile rivers, lakes or land. Another might religious or spiritual: cities born on mythical or sacred places, like Mexico City. Then there are cities born of ideology or for a name, as was the case with Alexandria or the renaming of Russian cities, like Volgograd to Stalingrad.
Sixty years ago, Chandigarh was conceived as a city to celebrate the independence of India. It’s a monument to the country’s entrance into the modern world. The name means “home of Chandi,” the warrior personified as Parvati, a deity of fertility love and devotion. Designed by the legendary architect Le Corbusier, today it’s the capital of the states of Punjab and Haryana and it was thought of as the “perfect city” (if that’s even possible).